Archive for January, 2006
The "course’’ is the whole area within any boundaries established by the Committee (see Rule 33-2).
Rule or Rules
The term "Rule’’ includes:
a. The Rules of Golf and their interpretations as contained in "Decisions on the Rules of Golf";
b. Any Conditions of Competition established by the Committee under Rule 33-1 and Appendix I;
c. Any Local Rules established by the Committee under Rule 33-8a and Appendix I; and
d. The specifications on clubs and the ball in Appendices II and III.
The "stipulated round’’ consists of playing the holes of the course in their correct sequence unless otherwise authorized by the Committee. The number of holes in a stipulated round is 18 unless a smaller number is authorized by the Committee. As to extension of stipulated round in match play, see Rule 2-3.
Rule 1. The Game
The Game of Golf consists of playing a ball with a club from the teeing ground into the hole by a stroke or successive strokes in accordance with the Rules.
1-2. Exerting Influence on Ball
A player or caddie must not take any action to influence the position or the movement of a ball except in accordance with the Rules.
(Removal of movable obstruction — see Rule 24-1.)
Penalty for Breach of Rule 1-2:
Match play — Loss of hole; Stroke play — Two strokes.
Note: In the case of a serious breach of Rule 1-2, the Committee may impose a penalty of disqualification.
1-3. Agreement to Waive Rules
Players must not agree to exclude the operation of any Rule or to waive any penalty incurred.
Penalty for Breach of Rule 1-3:
Match play — Disqualification of both sides;
Stroke play — Disqualification of competitors concerned.
(Agreeing to play out of turn in stroke play — see Rule 10-2c.)
1-4. Points Not Covered by Rules
If any point in dispute is not covered by the Rules, the decision should be made in accordance with equity.
1-1/2 Player Unaware He Has Holed Out Puts Another Ball into Play
Q. A player, unable to find his ball, puts another ball into play. He then discovers that his original ball is in the hole. What is the ruling?
A. The score with the original ball counts. The play of the hole was completed when the player holed that ball.
1-2/4 Player Jumps Close to Hole to Cause Ball to Drop
Q. A ball overhangs the lip of the hole. The player jumps close to the hole in the hope of jarring the earth and causing the ball to fall into the hole, which it does. Is this permissible?
If the ball was still moving when the player jumped, the player took action to influence the movement of the ball in breach of Rule 1-2. In match play, he lost the hole. In stroke play, he incurred a penalty of two strokes, and the ball was holed.
If the ball was at rest when the player jumped, it should be assumed that the player caused the ball to move, and he incurred a penalty of one stroke in both match and stroke play under Rule 18-2a and was required to replace the ball.
If it is not possible to determine whether the ball was still moving, it should be presumed to be moving unless it was deemed to be at rest under Rule 16-2.
1-3/2 Agreement to Concede Short Putts
Q. In a match, the two players agree in advance to concede all putts within a specified length. Is this contrary to Rule 1-3?
A. Yes. The players agreed to exclude the operation of Rule 1-1 and should be disqualified under Rule 1-3. Under Rule 2-4, the only stroke which may be conceded is the "next stroke" and it cannot be conceded in advance.
1-4/10 Dangerous Situation; Rattlesnake or Bees Interfere with Play
Q. A player’s ball comes to rest in a situation dangerous to the player, e.g., near a live rattlesnake or a bees’ nest. Does the player have any options in addition to playing the ball as it lies or, if applicable, proceeding under Rule 26 or 28?
A. Yes. It is unreasonable to expect the player to play from such a dangerous situation and unfair to require the player to incur a penalty under Rule 26 (Water Hazards) or Rule 28 (Ball Unplayable).
In equity (Rule 1-4), as an additional option the player should be permitted, without penalty, to drop a ball on the nearest spot not nearer the hole which is not dangerous.
If the ball lay in a hazard, it should be dropped, if possible, in the same hazard and, if not, in a similar nearby hazard, but in either case not nearer the hole. If it is not possible for the player to drop the ball in a hazard, he may drop it, under penalty of one stroke, outside the hazard, keeping the point where the original ball lay between the hole and the spot on which the ball is dropped.
If it is clearly unreasonable for the player to play a stroke because of interference by anything other than the dangerous situation he may not take relief as prescribed above, but he is not precluded from proceeding under Rule 26 or 28.
Danger from Fire Ants — See 33-8/22.
1-4/12 Player Breaches Rules More Than Once Prior to Stroke; Whether Multiple Penalties Applied
Prior to making a stroke, there may be circumstances where a player breaches a Rule more than once, or breaches different Rules and it would seem that a penalty should be applied to each separate breach. However, in the majority of cases and based on equity (Rule 1-4), it would not be appropriate to apply multiple penalties.
For the purpose of applying the principles in this Decision, Rules 4-3a, 4-3b, 4-3c, 13-4a, 13-4b, 13-4c, 14-2a, 14-2b, 17-3a, 17-3b, 17-3c, 18-2a and 18-2b should be considered as separate Rules.
Below are the specific principles to be applied when determining whether multiple penalties are appropriate when more than one breach has occurred prior to a player making a stroke:
1. SINGLE ACT RESULTS IN ONE RULE BEING BREACHED MORE THAN ONCE — SINGLE PENALTY APPLIED
Example: In stroke play, a competitor’s ball on the putting green strikes a fellow-competitor’s ball in breach of Rule 19-5 and then strikes another fellow-competitor’s ball, also in breach of Rule 19-5. The ruling would be a single two-stroke penalty (see Decision 19-5/3).
2. SINGLE ACT RESULTS IN TWO RULES BEING BREACHED — SINGLE PENALTY APPLIED
Example: In stroke play, a competitor is considering putting his ball from a bunker and rakes a footprint in the bunker on his line of play. Both Rule 13-2 and Rule 13-4a have been breached. The ruling would be a single two-stroke penalty.
3. MULTIPLE OCCURRENCES OF THE SAME OR SIMILAR ACTS RESULT IN ONE RULE BEING BREACHED MORE THAN ONCE — SINGLE PENALTY APPLIED
Example 1: In stroke play, a competitor takes several practice swings in a hazard, touching the ground each time. The ruling would be a single two-stroke penalty (see Decision 13-4/3).
Example 2: In stroke play, a player removes sand on his line of play through the green and presses down a replaced divot which is also on his line of play. The ruling would be a single two-stroke penalty.
4. DIFFERENT ACTS RESULT IN TWO RULES BEING BREACHED, BUT BREACH OF SECOND RULE IS A DIRECT CONSEQUENCE OF THE INITIAL BREACH — SINGLE PENALTY APPLIED
Example: In stroke play, a competitor’s ball moves prior to address and while it is in motion it is accidentally stopped by the competitor’s club in breach of Rule 19-2b. The competitor then moves the club and, therefore, moves his ball, normally a penalty stroke under Rule 18-2a. This would result in a single two-stroke penalty under Rule 19-2b (see Decision 19-2/1.5).
5. DIFFERENT ACTS RESULT IN TWO RULES BEING BREACHED — MULTIPLE PENALTIES APPLIED
Example: In stroke play, a competitor (1) lifts his ball in play and (2) substitutes another ball, both acts without authority, and plays the substituted ball. The ruling would be a one-stroke penalty under Rule 18-2a (lifting the ball in play) and a further penalty of two strokes under Rule 15-2 and the applicable Rule (substitution without correction), giving a total penalty of three strokes (see Decision 15/6.5).
6. DIFFERENT ACTS RESULT IN ONE RULE BEING BREACHED MORE THAN ONCE — MULTIPLE PENALTIES APPLIED
Example: In stroke play, a competitor (1) purposely steps on another player’s line of putt with the intention of improving the line, and then (2) purposely stops his own ball in motion after it began moving without apparent cause before address. The ruling would be two separate penalties, each of two strokes, for breaches of Rule 1-2, giving a total penalty of four strokes.
The following chart summarizes the principles of this Decision:
8-2a/3 Player Places Mark to Indicate Distance for Pitch Shot
Q. A player who has a pitch shot places a club on the ground off his line of play to indicate the distance he would like his ball to carry and leaves the club there during the stroke. What is the ruling?
A. In view of the purpose of Rule 8-2a, in equity (Rule 1-4), the player incurs the general penalty of loss of hole in match play or two strokes in stroke play.
19-1/4 Ball Played from Putting Green Deliberately Deflected or Stopped by Spectator
Q. A player plays a stroke from the putting green and, while the ball is still in motion, a spectator deliberately deflects or stops it. What is the ruling?
A. The Committee must act in equity — see Note under Rule 19-1. The stroke should be canceled, the ball replaced and the stroke replayed, without penalty.
Bending the back instead of tilting the hips.
With good posture, the back is straight. Tilting the hips/pelvis and not bending the back will put you in a more stable position.
From your tailbone to the back of your head is a straight line.
Check your hip tilt- is your belt buckle/pelvis pointed at the ball or to your front?
Stand tall, tilt your hips versus bending your back.
Correct setup posture is primarily achieved by the forward tilt of the hips — not bending at the waist or back. A median angle of about 30 degrees.
Notice how the angle stays the same
The Scramble is probably the most-common format for team tournaments. It can be played by 2-, 3- or 4-person teams, and involves choosing the one best shot following every stroke, with each team member then playing again from that one spot. Variants include the Texas Scramble, Florida Scramble and Ambrose.
2) Best Ball
In a Best Ball tournament, all members of each team play their own balls on each hole. At the completion of the hole, the lowest score among all team members serves as the team score. Best Ball can also be called Four Ball, and variations include 1-2-3 Best Ball.
3) Alternate Shot Alternate Shot is a format for 2-person teams and is sometimes called Foursomes. The two players on a team alternate hitting shots, playing the same ball. Odds and Evens and Scotch Foursomes are other versions of Alternate Shot.
4) Modified Stableford
A Modified Stableford competition can be played by individuals or as a team tournament. In Modified Stableford, the idea is to have the highest score – because your score on each hole is worth a certain amount of points. A birdie, for example, might be worth 2 points. The International, played on the PGA Tour every year, is a Modified Stableford.
5) Chapman (Pinehurst)
When the Chapman System (aka: Pinehurst System) is the format for a tournament, it means that 2-person teams will be competing. Chapman is really a melding of several formats into one. In a Chapman event, teammates switch balls after their tee shots, select the one best ball after their second shots, then play alternate shot until the ball is holed.
6) Bingo Bango Bongo This is one of the most popular formats for golf association tournaments and league tournaments. Bingo Bango Bongo rewards players for three things on each hole: being the first player in the group to get onto the green; being closest to the hole once all group members are on the green; and being the first player in the cup.
In a Flags tournament, all golfers begin the round with a set number of strokes (related to their handicaps), and they play until their strokes run out. The player who makes it farthest on his or her allotment of strokes is the winner.
8) Lone Ranger
Lone Ranger, also called Money Ball, Yellow Ball or Pink Ball, puts the onus on one player per team per hole to come through with a good score. Players in a group of four rotate as the "Lone Ranger;" on each hole, the score of the designated Lone Ranger is combined with the low score of the other three team members for the team score.
9) Peoria System The Peoria System is a sort of 1-day handicap system for a stroke play tournament in which most of the players do not have established handicaps. It allows all players to, following the round, deduce something resembling a handicap allowance and apply it to their scores. Peoria involves totaling your score on preselected (but secret, until after the round) holes, then doing some multiplication and division.
10) Callaway System Like Peoria, the Callaway System is a quasi-handicapping system that can be employed for a stroke play event in which most of the particants do not have handicaps. The Callaway System involves consulting a chart following the round to determine a handicap deduction and handicap allowance
The “line of putt’’ is the line that the player wishes his ball to take after a stroke on the putting green. Except with respect to Rule 16-1e, the line of putt includes a reasonable distance on either side of the intended line. The line of putt does not extend beyond the hole.
“Loose impediments’’ are natural objects including: • stones, leaves, twigs, branches and the like, dung, and worms and insects and casts or heaps made by them, provided they are not: fixed or growing, solidly embedded, or adhering to the ball. Sand and loose soil are loose impediments on the putting green, but not elsewhere. Snow and natural ice, other than frost, are either casual water or loose impediments, at the option of the player. Dew and frost are not loose impediments.
A ball is deemed “lost’’ if:
a. It is not found or identified as his by the player within five minutes after the player’s side or his or their caddies have begun to search for it; or
b. The player has made a stroke at a substituted ball; or
c. The player has made a stroke at a provisional ball from the place where the original ball is likely to be or from a point nearer the hole than that place.
Time spent in playing a wrong ball is not counted in the five-minute period allowed for search.
A “marker’’ is one who is appointed by the Committee to record a competitor’s score in stroke play. He may be a fellow-competitor.. He is not a referee.
Single: A match in which one plays against another.
Threesome: A match in which one plays against two, and each side plays one ball.
Foursome: A match in which two play against two, and each side plays one ball.
Three-Ball: A match-play competition in which three play against one another, each playing his own ball. Each player is playing two distinct matches.
Best-Ball: A match in which one plays against the better ball of two or the best ball of three players.
Four-Ball: A match in which two play their better ball against the better ball of two other players.
A ball is deemed to have “moved’’ if it leaves its position and comes to rest in any other place.
The “nearest point of relief” is the reference point for taking relief without penalty from interference by an immovable obstruction (Rule 24-2), an abnormal ground condition (Rule 25-1) or a wrong putting green (Rule 25-3).
It is the point on the course nearest to where the ball lies:
(i) that is not nearer the hole, and
(ii) where, if the ball were so positioned, no interference by the condition from which relief is sought would exist for the stroke the player would have made from the original position if the condition were not there.
Note: In order to determine the nearest point of relief accurately, the player should use the club with which he would have made his next stroke if the condition were not there to simulate the address position, direction of play and swing for such a stroke.
An “observer’’ is one who is appointed by the Committee to assist a referee to decide questions of fact and to report to him any breach of a Rule. An observer should not attend the flagstick, stand at or mark the position of the hole, or lift the ball or mark its position.
Terms & Definitions
“abnormal ground condition” is any casual water, ground under repair or hole, cast or runway on the course made by a burrowing animal, a reptile or a bird.
A player has “addressed the ball’’ when he has taken his stance and has also grounded his club, except that in a hazard a player has addressed the ball when he has taken his stance.
“Advice’’ is any counsel or suggestion that could influence a player in determining his play, the choice of a club or the method of making a stroke.
Information on the Rules or on matters of public information, such as the position of hazards or the flagstick on the putting green, is not advice.
A ball is “in play’’ as soon as the player has made a stroke on the teeing ground. It remains in play until it is holed, except when it is lost, out of bounds or lifted, or another ball has been substituted whether or not the substitution is permitted; a ball so substituted becomes the ball in play.
If a ball is played from outside the teeing ground when the player is starting play of a hole, or when attempting to correct this mistake, the ball is not in play and Rule 11-4 or 11-5 applies. Otherwise, ball in play includes a ball played from outside the teeing ground when the player elects or is required to play his next stroke from the teeing ground.
Exception in match play: Ball in play includes a ball played by the player from outside the teeing ground when starting play of a hole if the opponent does not require the stroke to be canceled in accordance with Rule 11-4a.
A “bunker’’ is a hazard consisting of a prepared area of ground, often a hollow, from which turf or soil has been removed and replaced with sand or the like. Grass-covered ground bordering or within a bunker, including a stacked turf face (whether grass-covered or earthen), is not part of the bunker. A wall or lip of the bunker not covered with grass is part of the bunker.
The margin of a bunker extends vertically downward, but not upward. A ball is in a bunker when it lies in or any part of it touches the bunker.
A “burrowing animal” is an animal that makes a hole for habitation or shelter, such as a rabbit, mole, groundhog, gopher or salamander.
Note: A hole made by a non-burrowing animal, such as a dog, is not an abnormal ground condition unless marked or declared as ground under repair.
A “caddie’’ is one who assists the player in accordance with the Rules, which may include carrying or handling the player’s clubs during play.
When one caddie is employed by more than one player, he is always deemed to be the caddie of the player whose ball is involved, and equipment carried by him is deemed to be that player’s equipment, except when the caddie acts upon specific directions of another player, in which case he is considered to be that other player’s caddie.
“Casual water’’ is any temporary accumulation of water on the course, that is visible before or after the player takes his stance, and is not in a water hazard. Snow and natural ice, other than frost, are either casual water or loose impediments, at the option of the player. Manufactured ice is an obstruction. Dew and frost are not casual water. A ball is in casual water when it lies in or any part of it touches the casual water.
The “Committee’’ is the committee in charge of the competition or, if the matter does not arise in a competition, the committee in charge of the course.
“Competitor’’ is a player in a stroke play competition. A “fellow-competitor’’ is any person with whom the competitor plays. Neither is partner of the other.
In stroke play foursome and four-ball competitions, where the context so admits, the word “competitor’’ or “fellow-competitor’’ includes his partner.
Posted by awguthrie to PGA Professional Golf Tips by AWGu3 at 5/5/2005 04:16:00 AM
Lee Trevino has observed that if a player is putting badly, then one of four things is wrong:
All four will be covered here, starting with technique.
"Don’t try too hard to hole every putt. A must make attitude puts too much pressure on your stroke…Just do your best to get the correct line and speed and roll the ball at the hole on that line." —Ben Crenshaw
The body’s physical requirements for putting are minimal. Golfers with low levels of strength and flexibility can be accomplished putters, though not able to drive a golf ball over 200 yards. In fact, putting and the accompanying short shots around the green are the beautiful equalizers between the power and finesse players in this game of golf.
Simply stated, what one must do to produce a successful putt is:
In putting, there is a minimal need for power so the stroke is the shortest of all golf swings. With a shorter stroke, less opening and closing of the clubface is produced. To reduce hand rotation, use a different grip from that used in the full swing. You can find a functional grip by first bending slightly at the waist so the arms hang extended. Then, raise the hands by bending the elbows until the hands reach the desired location on the putter grip The more the elbows are bent the more the hands will rotate to a palm upward or skyward facing if you are to be in your most natural position. Most teachers today recommend a taller posture than in previous generations, meaning a longer arm hang. This produces a natural grip that finds both thumbs pointing more down the shaft. Because the player stands closer to the ball and the lie of the club is more vertical, the grip will run more diagonally across both the left and right hand. This helps to reduce wristiness and clubface rotation.
Most common among all grip choices is the reverse-overlap, which puts the entire right hand on the grip and brings the two hands quite close together to better work as one unit. Among the others, the cross-handed and split-handed is that the left wrist is less likely to collapse in the forward stroke. All the grips mentioned are viable options, particularly if the conventional reverse overlap style is not effective or comfortable.
Aiming accurately may be the most difficult and most important element in the mechanics of putting.
One setup that is quite functional is as follows:
Grip pressure in any style varies from light to firm depending somewhat upon what fits the player’s philosophy. Are you a touch putter, a "jammer," wristy, or an arm-and shoulder type?
There are two problems with which to deal —
Step away from the board. Then with no ball and eyes closed you should be able to feel the pattern of the swing.
Already you have experienced that short putts only require short backswings with enough pace to get the ball to the cup. Now it’s appropriate to demonstrate that an important controller of distance is backswing length.
Posted by awguthrie to gu3 at 2/7/2005 08:45:08 PM
The Spirit of the Game
Unlike many sports, golf is played, for the most part, without the supervision of a referee or umpire. The game relies on the integrity of the individual to show consideration for other players and to abide by the Rules. All players should conduct themselves in a disciplined manner, demonstrating courtesy and sportsmanship at all times, irrespective of how competitive they maybe. This is the spirit of the game of golf.
Players should ensure that no one is standing close by or in a position to be hit by the club, the ball or any stones, pebbles, twigs or the like when they make a stroke or practice swing.
Players should not play until the players in front are out of range.
Players should always alert greenstaff nearby or ahead when they are about to make a stroke that might endanger them.
If a player plays a ball in a direction where there is a danger of hitting someone, he should immediately shout a warning. The traditional word of warning in such a situation is "fore."
No Disturbance or Distraction
Players should always show consideration for other players on the course and should not disturb their play by moving, talking or making any unnecessary noise.
Players should ensure that any electronic device taken onto the course does not distract other players.
On the teeing ground, a player should not tee his ball until it is his turn to play.
Players should not stand close to or directly behind the ball, or directly behind the hole, when a player is about to play. On the Putting Green
On the putting green, players should not stand on another player’s line of putt or when he is making a stroke, cast a shadow over his line of putt.
Players should remain on or close to the putting green until all other players in the group have holed out. Scoring
In stroke play, a player who is acting as a marker should, if necessary, on the way to the next tee, check the score with the player concerned and record it.
Play at Good Pace and Keep Up
Players should play at a good pace. The Committee may establish pace of play guidelines that all players should follow.
It is a group’s responsibility to keep up with the group in front. If it loses a clear hole and it is delaying the group behind, it should invite the group behind to play through, irrespective of the number of players in that group.
Be Ready to Play
Players should be ready to play as soon as it is their turn to play. When playing on or near the putting green, they should leave their bags or carts in such a position as will enable quick movement off the green and towards the next tee. When the play of a hole has been completed, players should immediately leave the putting green.
If a player believes his ball may be lost outside a water hazard or is out of bounds, to save time, he should play a provisional ball.
Players searching for a ball should signal the players in the group behind them to play through as soon as it becomes apparent that the ball will not easily be found.
They should not search for five minutes before doing so. Having allowed the group behind to play through, they should not continue play until that group has passed and is out of range.
Unless otherwise determined by the Committee, priority on the course is determined by a group’s pace of play. Any group playing a whole round is entitled to pass a group playing a shorter round.
Before leaving a bunker, players should carefully fill up and smooth over all holes and footprints made by them and any nearby made by others. If a rake is within reasonable proximity of the bunker, the rake should be used for this purpose.
Repair of Divots, Ball-Marks and Damage by Shoes
Players should carefully repair any divot holes made by them and any damage to the putting green made by the impact of a ball (whether or not made by the player himself). On completion of the hole by all players in the group, damage to the putting green caused by golf shoes should be repaired.
Preventing Unnecessary Damage
Players should avoid causing damage to the course by removing divots when taking practice swings or by hitting the head of a club into the ground, whether in anger or for any other reason.
Players should ensure that no damage is done to the putting green when putting down bags or the flagstick.
In order to avoid damaging the hole, players and caddies should not stand too close to the hole and should take care during the handling of the flagstick and the removal of a ball from the hole. The head of a club should not be used to remove a ball from the hole.
Players should not lean on their clubs when on the putting green, particularly when removing the ball from the hole.
The flagstick should be properly replaced in the hole before players leave the putting green.
Local notices regulating the movement of golf carts should be strictly observed.
Conclusion; Penalties for Breach
If players follow the guidelines in this Section, it will make the game more enjoyable for everyone.
If a player consistently disregards these guidelines during a round or over a period of time to the detriment of others, it is recommended that the Committee consider taking appropriate disciplinary action against the offending player. Such action may, for example, include prohibiting play for a limited time on the course or in a certain number of competitions. This is considered to be justifiable in terms of protecting the interest of the majority of golfers who wish to play in accordance with these guidelines.
In the case of a serious breach of Etiquette, the Committee may disqualify a player under Rule 33-7.